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University of Zagreb Engineering Geologists Perform Forecasting and Protective Monitoring of the Kostanjek Landslide

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Japanese researchers guided by Kyoji Sassa, professor emeritus of the Kyoto University, applied failure predictions based on velocity monitoring, i.e., on the Fokozuno's method of inverse velocities. They also proved high risk of the Kostanjek landslide due to long period of movement, over 50 years, which resulted in large total displacement. Professor Sassa, as technical director of the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), said that ICL supports applied scientific research of landslide monitoring as one of important risk reduction measure. Dr. Krkač explains that results obtained by the GNSS monitoring system showed multiple reactivations of the Kostanjek landslide during the period between 2013 and 2018. Observations revealed maximum displacements in the central parts of the landslide of approximately 70 centimeters. early warning system for extreme conditions for support authorities responsible for emergency preparedness. He also stresses that data and knowledge gathered by monitoring of the Kostanjek landslide will aid in the development of more effective and protective slope stabilization measures. "High frequency meteorological, hydrogeological and movement data obtained by continuous monitoring enabled us to establish a new, more accurate method to predict landslide movements," said Dr. Krkač. Professor Snježana Mihalić Arbanas from the University of Zagreb, head of the Kostanjek Landslide Observatory explains: "We have established the Kostanjek Landslide Observatory to focus on the disaster risk factors and scenarios, including emerging risks in the medium and long term changes of precipitation pattern. The main component of the Observatory is precise GNSS monitoring, that is vital and it will continue to have tremendous benefits for scientists, local authorities and residents when it comes to public safety and remediation efforts." The data collected from the GNSS receivers and other equipment is processed by a variety of specialized software for analysis and modeling. Zagreb city officers and other scientists can use the Trimble 4D web user interface as a portal to observe landslide movement behavior remotely. By integrating monitoring research results from different sensor types, scientists are more clearly defining landslide models and evaluating critical landslide triggers. Professor Željko Arbanas from the University of Rijeka, head of the Croatian Landslide Group and Vice president of the International Consortium on Landslides, stresses that observing activity of large and deep-seated landslides continuously is of utmost importance for development of an about 20 daily measurements for the period of two years. All losses are caused due to data transmission and human factor. "The real-time transmission of data from each monitoring location within the landslide observation area was critical to the success of the project," said Dr. Krkač. "Wireless internet at each of the monitoring locations enabled fast and high-quality transmission of large amounts of data being collected continuously, not just from 16 GNSS sensors, but also from weather station and the geotechnical sensors – such as pore pressure gauges. Wireless internet eliminated our need for the line-of- site that is required for traditional monitoring projects." Figure 3. Trimble T4D Scatter Plot Looking Ahead - More Automated Data Processing and Analysis Aid in Protective Predictions Integrating Research Results for More Insight into Landslide Movements I N D U S T R Y P R O D U C T W A T C H 2 4 G I S R E S O U R C E S | S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 8

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